The information that researchers are required to disclose to participants is commensurate with the risk. Participants in studies where unauthorized disclosure could put them at risk should receive more information about confidentiality procedures than participants in studies where disclosure is unlikely to expose them to harm. Investigators may have access to PPII without informing the individuals concerned if the IRB authorizes a waiver of the requirement to obtain informed consent. In such cases, researchers should be particularly aware of the importance of maintaining the confidentiality of participant information, as personal information is accessed without participants` knowledge or permission. Researchers must inform participants of any limitations on data privacy protection, including: Please note that section 2.19 sets out the requirements if a Part 2 program is discontinued or acquired by another program, rather than simply changing its name or restructuring. This section provides that a discontinued program or a program acquired under another program must delete or destroy personally identifiable information from its records, unless the patient consents to the transfer of his or her records, unless there is a legal obligation to retain the records. a) Responsibilities of IYQ officials and staff. QIO shall provide appropriate physical security measures to prevent unauthorized access to QIO information and to ensure the integrity of the information, including measures necessary to safeguard computer files. Each IQO must inform its officers, employees and employees of healthcare facilities involved in IQO activities of its responsibility to maintain the confidentiality of information and of the legal sanctions that may be imposed in the event of unauthorized disclosure of IQO. b) Responsible persons within the IYQ. The QIA must assign to an individual the responsibility of maintaining the system in order to ensure the confidentiality of the information in the QA verification system.
This person must notify CMS of any violation of these regulations.  Point (c) requires a lawyer to act competently in order to protect information relating to the representation of a client against unauthorised access by third parties and against accidental or unauthorised disclosure by the lawyer or other persons involved in the representation of the client or subject to the supervision of the lawyer. See Rules 1.1, 5.1 and 5.3. Unauthorized access to or accidental or unauthorized disclosure of information in the course of representing a client does not constitute a violation of paragraph (c) if counsel has made reasonable efforts to prevent access or disclosure. Factors to consider in determining the appropriateness of the prosecutor`s efforts include, but are not limited to, the sensitivity of the information, the likelihood of disclosure if additional safeguards are not taken, the cost of using additional safeguards, the difficulty of implementing the safeguards, and the extent to which the safeguards affect the prosecutor`s ability to: represent clients (e.g., critical device or software that is excessively difficult to use). A client may require the lawyer to take special security measures that are not required under this rule, or may give informed consent to waive security measures that would otherwise be required under this rule. Whether an attorney may be required to take additional steps to protect a tenant`s information in order to comply with other laws, such as state and federal laws that govern privacy or impose notification requirements in the event of loss or unauthorized access to electronic information, goes beyond the scope of these rules. For the duties of a lawyer when exchanging information with non-lawyers outside his own office, see Rule 5.3, Notes -.  While the public interest is usually best served by a strict rule requiring lawyers to maintain the confidentiality of information about their clients` representation, the confidentiality rule is subject to limited exceptions. Paragraph (b)(1) recognizes the paramount value of life and limb and permits disclosure reasonably necessary to prevent death or serious bodily harm with certainty.